Wlliam Gilmore Simms
Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina >> An Oration on the Life, Character, and Services of John Caldwell Calhoun, Delivered on the 21st November 1850, in Charleston, S.C., at the Request of the City Council >> Page 239

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Page 239

Speech | The Reprint Company; John F. Trow & Co. | 1866, 1978
Transcription 239
cated a large addition to the navy, at an early period
of warlike preparations, and, ever after, consistently
and earnestly sustained this most important arm of
defence and support of the State. The Republican
Party, under Mr. Jefferson, had, with a narrow policy,
condemned the navy. But amphibious man never
attains half his national greatness, until his domain on
the water equals that upon the land —until the terror
of his prowess makes his home upon the deep as
secure as on the mountains, and the products of his
industry float undisturbed on every tide.
At this early period, also, Mr. Calhoun took his
stand against the Restrictive System, which had been
so great a favorite with Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Madi-
son, as a substitute for war. He denounced it as
unsound in policy, and wholly unsuited to the genius
of our people ; and he opposed it vigorously, until it
fell beneath his blows. But it may well be questioned,
whether, at that time, his opposition was at all en-
lightened by those great principles of Free Trade,
then so little known, which it was the glory of his
later life to develop and sustain under such trying
circumstances. He then opposed the Restrictive Sys-
tem as a war measure, and demonstrated that it was
not only inefficient, but injurious. Neither then, nor
when the import duties were re-adjusted at the close
of the war, did he appear to have perceived the
dangers which lurked under the protection which this
system gave to manufacturers, nor those which fol-
lowed such protection when specifically given by the
direct action of the Government. For, in the debate
in 1814, while Mr. Webster, now the great champion
of protection, declared " he was an enemy to rearing