Wlliam Gilmore Simms
Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina >> Explanatory Notes >> Page 373

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Documents | The Reprint Company; John F. Trow & Co. | 1866, 1978
Transcription EXPLANATORY NOTES 373
105.14 "Brown had no criminal design in what he did":
Hammond may refer to the contemporary report that the slave
that John L. Brown was convicted of aiding to escape was his
mistress. Brown professed himself not to be an abolitionist.
108.23 "Middle Passage" : In the international slave trade the voy-
age from West Africa to America (usually the West Indies) was
called the Middle Passage because it fell between the slave
ship's voyage from home port in Europe or New England to
Africa, and the voyage from America, after sale of the slaves,
to home port.

114.4 "your Circular Letter": Thomas Clarkson, Letter to
Such Professing Christians in the Northern States of America,
as Have Had No Practical Concern with Slave-Holding ..
(London: 1844).
116.11 "your pious King" : An ironic reference to George III, who
in 1807 gave assent to the Parliamentary act outlawing the
slave trade in the British Empire.
116.22 "Mr. Grosvenor" : Perhaps Richard Grosvenor, 1st Earl
Grosvenor (1731-1802).
118.32 "Peter the Hermit": The itinerant preacher credited with
instigating the First Crusade in 1095.
119.4 "tortious": Legally wrongful.
124.12 "1 Peter ii, 20": The verse reads, in the King James ver-
sion: "For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your
faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if when ye do well, and
suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God."
124.16 "Ex[odus] xxi, 6": The verse reads, in the King James
version: "Then his master shall bring him into the judges; he
shall also bring him to the door; or unto the door post; and his
master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall
serve him forever."
126.13 "Gov. M' Duffie" : George McDuffie (1790-1851), Rep-
resentative from S.C. 1821-1834, Governor 1834-1836, and
Senator 1842-1846, was a passionate orator, strong opponent
of the tariff, and ally and friend of John C. Calhoun.
129.14 "apprenticeship": An ironic reference to the appren-
ticeship system of labor for blacks which had been employed
in the British colonies as a part of the emancipation program in
1833-1838. It was ostensibly a transitional phase from slavery
to freedom.
129.27 "But so are our taxes": The U.S. Constitution pro-