Wlliam Gilmore Simms
Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina >> Explanatory Notes >> Page 374

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Documents | The Reprint Company; John F. Trow & Co. | 1866, 1978
Transcription 374 EXPLANATORY NOTES
vided that in determining representation in the House of
Representatives and in apportioning direct taxes to the states,
three-fifths of the slave population was to be counted.
133.8—9 "another has been recently elected . . . over an oppo-
nent who was a slave-holder also": James K. Polk of
Tennessee defeated Henry Clay of Kentucky in the election of
1844.
134.15 "Millerism": An Adventist sect organized by William
Miller in New York state had acquired a large following in the
North. Miller's prediction of the second coming of Christ no
later than March, 1844, had just recently failed to materialize.
134.17 "Shakers": A communal religious sect founded in Eng-
land in 1770 by "Mother" Ann Lee, who emigrated to
America in 1774. Shakers practiced celibacy and regarded God
as an androgynous being.
134.17 "Rappists": A religious sect with mystical and commu-
nist doctrines which was transferred from Germany to
Pennsylvania in 1803.
134.17 "Dunkers": A common name for the Church of the
Brethren, a primitivist communal sect originating in Germany
but established in Pennsylvania in the eighteenth century.
134.18 "Fourrierists": Charles Fourier (1772—1837) was a
French utopian socialist who advocated the organization of
society into communal bodies called "phylansteries." So
organized, society would progress materially and spritually to
perfection on earth.
134.19 "Puseyism": Edward Bouvier Pusey (1800—1882) was one
of the initiators of the Oxford Movement, an attempt to revive
sacramentalism in the Anglican Church. In 1843 Pusey had
been tried for heresy and suspended from clerical offices for
two years.
134.31 "Miss Martineau" : Harriet Martineau (1802-1876), a Brit-
ish writer, had toured America during 1834—36. Her Society in
America (1837) was notoriously harsh in criticism of
Americans.
135.20 "Leo should be almost canonized" : Apparently a refer-
ence to the Renaissance Pope Leo X, a worldly Medici.
136.18 "crim. con.": Crimonious conversation, i.e., adultery.
142.10—11 "Judge Stroud of Philadelphia" : George McDowell
Stroud (1795—1875), author of Sketch of the Laws Relative to Slavery in the Several States (1827).
143.14 "Homo sum, humani nil a me alienum puto": I am a man;
all that touches mankind is my concern.
144.7 "Mr. Pitt" : William Pitt, the younger (1759-1806), was con-
verted to support for Parliamentary suppression of the slave
trade.