Wlliam Gilmore Simms
Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina >> Explanatory Notes >> Page 379

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Page 379

Documents | The Reprint Company; John F. Trow & Co. | 1866, 1978
Transcription EXPLANATORY NOTES 379
Calhoun and then a member of the U.S. House of Representa-
tives, had supported the constitutional power of Congress to
subsidize internal improvements.
245.30 "the squabble with the Directory": The "XYZ Affair" be-
tween the United States and the French government in 1797.
246.7–9 "Mr. Monroe declared, on his accession, that we were
`all Federalists—all Republicans': The words were actually
used by Thomas Jefferson in his first inaugural address in
1801. Hammond is literally wrong but perhaps correct in spirit
in attributing the words to Monroe, a mistake he makes again
on page 341.
248.29 "greatest of metaphysicians": Aristotle, teacher of
Alexander the Great.
252.12 "ad captandum" : The Latin phrase is "ad captandum
vulgus"—to catch the mob.
256.30–32 "whether he shall go down to posterity portrayed in the
colors of the Gracchi of the Patricians, or the Gracchi of the
People": That is, as a conspiratorial rebel or a patriotic hero.
258.4 "the Maysville Bill": An appropriation for internal im-
provements, specifically for a federal investment in a turnpike
company in Kentucky.
258.26 "Gov. Hamilton" : James Hamilton, Jr. (1786-1857), Gov-
ernor of South Carolina during 1830-1832.
259.18 "Gen. Hayne" : Robert Young Hayne (1791–1839) re-
signed as Senator from South Carolina in December, 1832, to
become Governor.
260.11 "His speech": Calhoun's speech on the Force Bill, Feb-
ruary 15–16, 1833.
260.13 "that of the great Athenian on the Crown": Demos-
thenes' On the Crown, which summed up his opposition to the
Macedonian monarchy.
261.25 "reversed": Misprint for "reserved."
263.3 "Compromise Bill": The compromise tariff law of 1833
provided for gradual reduction of the tariff rates.
264.12–13 "But he beat the surges under him . . .": Shakespeare,
The Tempest, II, 1.
270.2 "the leader of the Republican Party" : Here and in many
other places Hammond uses the term "Republican" to
describe what was then and later called the Democratic Party.
Hammond's terminology is both conventional and deliberate.
For Hammond, the "Republican Party" is the State rights
party of Jefferson, as opposed to the Federalist-Whig Party
descended from Hamilton. He obviously does not mean the
Republican Party of Abraham Lincoln, which had not come
into existence at the time Hammond spoke.